September 09, 2019
The ovaries are small, almond-shaped organs located on either side of the uterus. Eggs are produced in the ovaries. Ovarian cancer can occur in several different parts of the ovary.Ovarian cancer can start in the ovary’s germ, stromal, or epithelial cells. Germ cells are the cells that become eggs. Stromal cells make up the substance of the ovary. Epithelial cells are the outer layer of the ovary.
The American Cancer Society estimates that 22,240 women will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer in the United States in 2018, and 14,070 deaths will occur from this type of cancer in 2018. About half of all cases occur in women over the age of 63.
Symptoms of ovarian cancer
Early stage ovarian cancer may not have any symptoms.
That can make it very difficult to detect. However, some symptoms may include:
- frequent bloating quickly
- feeling full when eating
- difficulty eating
- a frequent, urgent need to urinate
- pain or discomfort in the abdomen or pelvis
These symptoms have a sudden onset. They feel different from normal digestion or menstrual discomfort. They also don’t go away.
Other symptoms of ovarian cancer can include:
- Lower back pain
- pain during intercourse
- a change in the menstrual cycle
- weight gain
- weight loss
- vaginal bleeding
- back pain that worsens
If you have these symptoms for longer than two weeks, you should seek medical attention.
Causes of ovarian cancer
Researchers do not yet understand what causes ovarian cancer to form. Different risk factors can increase a woman’s chances of developing this type of cancer, but having those risk factors doesn’t mean you will develop the cancer.
Cancer forms when cells in the body start growing and multiplying abnormally. Researchers studying ovarian cancer are trying to identify which genetic mutations are responsible for the cancer.
These mutations may be inherited from a parent or they can also be acquired. That is, they occur during your lifetime.
Treatment for ovarian cancer
Treatment of ovarian cancer depends on the type, stage, and whether you want to have children in the future.
Surgery can be done to confirm the diagnosis, determine the stage of the cancer, and potentially remove the cancer.
During surgery, your surgeon will try to remove all tissue that contains cancer. They may also take a biopsy to see if the cancer has spread. The extent of the surgery may depend on whether you want to be pregnant in the future.
If you want to become pregnant in the future and you have stage 1 cancer, surgery can include:
- removal of the ovary that has cancer and a biopsy of the other ovary
- removal of the fatty tissue, or omentum attached to some of the abdominal organs
- removal of abdominal and pelvic lymph nodes
- biopsies of other tissues and collection of fluid inside of the abdomen
Advanced ovarian cancer surgery
Surgery is more extensive if you don’t want to have children. You also may need more surgery if you have stage 2, 3, or 4 cancer. Complete removal of all areas involved with cancer may prevent you from becoming pregnant in the future. This includes:
- removal of the uterus
- removal of both ovaries and fallopian tubes
- removal of the omentum
- removal of as much tissue that has cancer cells as possible
- biopsies of any tissue that might be cancerous
Surgery is usually followed by chemotherapy. Medications can be given intravenously or through the abdomen. This is called intraperitoneal treatment. Side effects of chemotherapy can include:
- hair loss fatigue
- problems sleeping
Treatment of symptoms
While your doctor prepares to treat or remove the cancer, you may need additional treatment for the symptoms the cancer is causing. Pain is not uncommon with ovarian cancer.
The tumor can put pressure on nearby organs, muscles, nerves, and bones. The larger the cancer, the more intense the pain may be.
Pain may also be a result of treatment. Chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery can leave you in pain and discomfort.
Read The Rest At Source Here: https://www.healthline.com/health/ovarian-cancer#statistics