September 14, 2021
Swollen ankles and feet are common complaints and are not usually cause for major concern, particularly if you have been standing or walking a lot. But feet and ankles that stay swollen or are accompanied by other symptoms could be a sign of serious health problems. Here are some possible causes of foot and ankle swelling, what to do about it and when to see the doctor or podiatrist:
Pregnancy complications. All women know some swelling of the ankles and feet is normal during pregnancy. Sudden or excessive swelling, however, may be a sign of preeclampsia, a serious condition in which high blood pressure and protein in the urine develops after the 20th week of pregnancy. If you experience severe swelling or swelling accompanied by other symptoms such as abdominal pain, headaches, infrequent urination, nausea and vomiting, or vision changes, call your doctor immediately.
Foot or ankle injury. An injury to the foot or ankle can lead to swelling. The most common is a sprained ankle, which occurs when an injury or misstep causes the ligaments that hold the ankle in place to be stretched beyond their normal range. To reduce the swelling from a foot or ankle injury, rest to avoid walking on the injured ankle or foot, use ice packs, wrap the foot or ankle with a compression bandage, and elevate the foot on a pillow. If swelling and pain are severe or don’t improve with home treatment, see your podiatrist or doctor for an x-ray and more treatment.
Lymphedema. This is a collection of lymphatic fluid in the tissues that can develop because of the absence of or problems with the lymph vessels or after the removal of lymph nodes. Lymph is a protein-rich fluid that normally travels along an extensive network of vessels and capillaries. It is filtered through the lymph nodes, which trap and destroy unwanted substances, such as bacteria. When there is a problem with the vessels or lymph nodes, movement can be blocked. Untreated, lymph buildup can prevent wound healing and lead to infection and deformity. Lymphedema is common following radiation therapy or removal of the lymph nodes in patients with cancer. If you have undergone cancer treatment and experience swelling, see your doctor right away.
Venous insufficiency. Swelling of the ankles and feet is an early symptom of venous insufficiency, a condition where the veins do not work well and cannot effectively move blood from the legs and feet up to the heart. Normally, the veins keep blood flowing upward through one-way valves. When these valves become damaged or weakened, the blood leaks back down the vessels and into the soft tissue of the lower legs, especially the ankles and feet. Chronic venous insufficiency can lead to skin changes, skin ulcers, and infection, and may be painful. If you experience signs of venous insufficiency, you should see your doctor or podiatrist immediately.
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